China's potato processing and industry status
Potato has good nutritional and economic value and is widely used in the food industry, starch industry, feed industry and pharmaceutical industry. At present, China's potato planting area and total output have jumped to the top in the world, and consumption is also one of the fastest growing countries in the world. Although China has become a big potato producer and consumer, from the farmer's cultivation to the enterprise processing, the whole industry is still in a relatively extensive stage and cannot meet the growing market demand. How to use the existing potato varieties and domestic potato chip equipment to produce higher quality potato products is a topic worth studying.
1 The origin, crop characteristics and nutritional value of the potato
1. 1 The origin and spread of potatoes
The earliest historical record of the world about potatoes was in 1537. Subsequently, Iopez de Gomara (1552) reported on potatoes in southern Peru, and Pedro Cieza de leon (1553) reported the presence of potatoes in Colombia and northern Ecuador. Domestication and extensive cultivation of potatoes is one of the most remarkable events for humans to conquer nature. The 16th century was confined to South America and was not known to European, Asian and North Americans. Through the spread of Spanish conquistadors, it became one of the most important crops in the world in just 300 years.
The spread of potatoes in mainland China dates back to the second half of the 17th century, starting with Fujian Province in the southeast, Shanxi Province in the northwest, and Shaanxi Province. From here, the potato spread to other provinces in Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin and northern China.
1. 2 The crop characteristics of potato
Potatoes are also known as "artichokes", "potatoes", and "yam apple eggs." Potatoes are vegetatively propagated crops, and the harvested product is the vegetative organ, the tubers, and therefore has many other specificities that are not found in crops that harvest seeds. First, the tuber for sowing contains more water, which creates favorable conditions for ensuring emergence under drought conditions. It can be said that potato is a crop with high water use efficiency and is a superior crop for developing dry farming.
At the same time, the potato is also a high-yield crop, and it is also a crop with high resource utilization efficiency. The potato's harvest index is 75% to 85%, indicating that the crop itself is less than 25% after consuming sunlight, moisture, nutrients and inputs, making it an efficient crop. Therefore, the development of potato production is undoubtedly a rational choice in countries and regions where population pressure is relatively high and agricultural resources are relatively scarce.
Potatoes have the characteristics of high yield, early maturity, wide distribution and many uses, so they can become a worldwide food. Potato is the fourth major crop in the world after wheat, rice and corn.
In terms of dry matter produced per unit area, it is higher than wheat, barley and corn. For the protein produced per unit area, it is wheat, rice and corn. 02, 1. 33 and 1. 20 times. The potato resources are very rich. At present, there are more than 100 countries in the world where the potato is planted. The total cultivated area is 200 × 108 m2. China is the world's largest potato producing country. The planting area and total output are the highest in the world. The area is 46. Around 7 × 108 m2, the total annual output of fresh potatoes is 5500 × 104 t, and the average unit yield is 1. 18kg / m2. The planting areas are mainly distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and other regions